Les pouvoirs du parlement européen

Pages: 16 (4000 mots) Publié le: 11 janvier 2011
Lucas Robin-Chevallier
Student number : 349458lr

European Union Institutional Law


The European Parliament – Powers

In a historical perspective and fairly common, a Parliament is the legislative body of a system consisting of one or more assemblies of representatives of one or several peoples. In a democratic system, it is responsible mainly to pass the bill.In parliamentary systems, it has power to overthrow the government. Thus, the European Parliament is one of the strongest characteristics of the European Union, and that tends to distinguish it from traditional international organizations. Originally, simple common assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), it reflected a desire to involve new people in the process of Europeancooperation. This meeting was merged with those of economic communities and Euratom in 1957. It became a consultative assembly. But faced with the acceleration and intensification of the integration process, it has been wise to increase its role in the European Community. That is why in 1962 it has been renamed "European Parliament" to show to some extent its importance. In 1976, it won the vote byuniversal suffrage, but his name "Parliament" was officially accepted in 1992 in the Treaty of Maastricht.

As the parliamentary assembly of the European Union, one of the three institutions of the institutional triangle (formed with the Commission and the Council of the European Union), it characterizes the regime of political cooperation that is unique to the European Union.Moreover, it is similar to national parliaments in many aspects (e.g. structure and functions), but its organization and its role within the institutional triangle are not the same as that of national parliaments in Member States. Indeed, it cannot be dissolved.

In this context, the changing role of the European Parliament has two essential characteristics. On the one hand, the extensionof its competences participating in a greater legitimacy of European decisions, and if information are provided, better acceptance by the citizens of the Union which it represents. On the other hand, “the organization of the European Parliament by political group embodies a specific type of legitimacy within the European Union”. Hence, it seems like a potential cons-power to both the Council ofthe European Union and the Commission. Enable the European Parliament to participate effectively in decision-making represents a means to ensuring the institutional balance of the whole European Union. This will allow a maximum legitimacy of the European integration. Indeed, it has gradually strengthened to support the theme of "democratic deficit", whether by the election of its members by directuniversal suffrage in 1979 or by various treaties, which have extended its skills and its scopes of intervention. Therefore, the European Parliament has gradually gained more important role in the legislative process, in the ordinary legislative procedure, the most important criterion to ensure the democratic functioning of the European Union. On expense of which institutions has this powerincrease happened ? More generally, does the strengthening of this "hybrid institution" enable it to gain prominence within the European Union? What does the European Parliament weigh compared to other institutions ?

It is pertinent therefore to examine the extent of the powers of Parliament and, more specifically, that which it exercises as co-legislator while emphasizing its advantages overother institutions. However, it is then necessary to highlight its weaknesses vis-à-vis its role as a legislator.

The prerogatives of the European Parliament have been continuously expanded

As stated in article 14 of the Treaty on European Union, the European Parliament is involved in the budget process, has a power to control and actively participates in the legislative process....
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