Quality management

Pages: 56 (13950 mots) Publié le: 19 février 2010
Chapter 1.
Processed-based quality management system at Upetrom 1 mai S.A. Ploiesti

1. Introduction – defining quality and the need for a quality management system
When talking about quality the first thing to be noticed is that “quality” is not just a simple term, but rather a concept whose understanding implies the discussion of different aspects and perspectives. As a consequence,defining quality is a rather complex task.
The way people define quality has more to do with the way people perceive quality. In this sense there are more dimensions of quality. The most used and respected set of quality dimensions include the transcendent dimension which regards quality as something that is intuitively understood, but almost impossible to communicate, like beauty or love; theproduct-based dimension states that quality is found in the components and attributes of a product. The user-based definition considers that if the customer is satisfied this means that a product has good quality; the manufacturing-based definition relates good quality to product’s conformance to design specifications. Furthermore, there is also the value-based dimension which connects quality to thevalue provided for the price; therefore, good value is translated into good quality. [1]
These dimensions refer to the customers’ view of quality. As far as the manufacturer is concerned, quality is viewed differently. One of the important determinants of how quality is perceived relates to the functional role fulfilled organizationally. Taking this into consideration there are supply chainperspectives, engineering, operation, marketing, financial human resources perspectives, etc.
Moreover, the focus on different aspects of quality is also revealed by the fundamental areas of quality control, quality assurance and quality management, with the role to tie the first two together.
The contingency theory sets a common understanding of quality. This theory states that due to different typesof organizations- in relation to mission, purpose, target markets, attributes- and to different perceptions on quality, the definitions and dimensions of quality applied within organizations vary.[2]
Having realized the importance of quality in customer satisfaction, customer retention and therefore gaining competitive advantage and profit organizations also understood that is essential toproperly manage quality.
“Quality management refers to all aspects of management functions that determine and implement the intentions and directions of an organization as regards to quality matters.”
The concept of formal quality control was first developed by W A Shewhart in his famous book “Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product”.
Since then, various quality gurus, among who Deming,Juran and Crosby have to be mentioned, have propounded their own concepts and ideas on quality. As consequence, confusion arose in the minds of managers and quality professionals as to which quality methodology should be adopted in their organizations.
To solve this problem the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has defined 8 universally acceptable principles to serve as basisfor the new standard of quality management system ISO 9000:2000.
The quality management principles are:
1. Customer focused Organization
2. Leadership
3. Involvement of people
4. Process orientation
5. System approach to management
6. Continuous Improvement
7. Factual approach to decision making
8. Mutually beneficial supplier relationshipsThe adoption of a quality management system should be a strategic decision of an organization. The design and implementation of an organization’s quality management system is influenced by varying needs, particular objectives, the products provided, the processes employed and the size and structure of the organization.

2. Company profile.
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