949 mots 4 pages


Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south and Scotland includes over 790 islands including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
Edinburgh, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe's largest financial centres.
The Kingdom of Scotland was an independent sovereign state until 1707.

History of Scotland:

In 1294 Balliol and other Scottish lords refused Edward's I (the King of England) demands to serve in his army against the French. Instead the Scottish parliament sent envoys to France to negotiate an alliance. Scotland and France sealed a treaty on 23 October 1295, that came to be known as the Auld Alliance (an alliance between the kingdoms of Scotland and France= vieille alliance en français) (1295–1560). War continued and King John was deposed by Edward who took personal control of Scotland.
Andrew Moray and William Wallace, the principal leaders of the resistance to English rule in what became known as the Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1328).

Geography, climate, flora and fauna

Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass (zone terrestre) of the island of Great Britain.
The total area is 78,772 km2 comparable to the size of the Czech Republic.
Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west.
The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east.

Scotland geomorphology.


The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven.
This part of Scotland is composed of ancient rocks. The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest mountains in the British Isles are found here. Scotland has over 790 islands which are divided into four main groups: Shetland,

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