The pharmaceutical industry includes the manufacture, extraction, processing, purification, and packaging of chemical materials to be used as medication for humans or animals. Pharmaceuticalmanufacturing is divided into two major stages. The first stage, which is typically referred to as primary processing or manufacture, is the production of the active ingredient or drug. The second stage,secondary processing, is the conversion of the active drugs into products suitable for administration. This document addresses the synthesis of the active ingredients and their usage in the drugformulations to deliver the prescribed dosage. Formulation is also referred to as galenical production.
Major pharmaceutical groups manufactured include:
• proprietary ethicalproducts or prescription only medicines (POM) and usually are patented products;
• general ethical products which are basically standard prescription only medicines made to a recognized formula,which may be specified in standard industry reference books; and
• over-the counter (OTC) or non- prescription products.
The products are available as tablets; capsules; liquids (whichmay be in the form of solutions, suspensions, emulsions, gels, or injectables); creams and ointments (which usually consist of an oil-in-water emulsion (cream) or water-in-oil emulsion (ointment));and aerosols (which contain inhalable products or products suitable for external use
Products and business description
This sector profile covers pharmaceutical end productsonly. These can be divided into three categories: ␣
Prescription drugs, based on chemical
compounds and prescribed or
administered by healthcare professionals␣ Over the counter (OTC) drugs, based on
chemical compounds and freely sold ␣
Vaccines, based on bacteria and viruses
The distinction between branded and...
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