Utilitarism

452 mots 2 pages
References and concepts of the Utilitarianism
Reference:
JS Mill was inspired by Bentham for his theory. Jeremy Bentham was born in 15 February 1748. He was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. For him the utilitarianism was "the greatest happiness or greatest felicity principle". Utility, the good to be maximized, has been defined as happiness or pleasure (versus suffering or pain), although preference utilitarians define it as the satisfaction of preferences. It may be described as a life stance, with happiness or pleasure being of ultimate importance.
Bentham thought all people must do before deciding the utility of the certain act in question. It is dependent on: * Its intensity. * Its duration. * Its certainty or uncertainty. * Its propinquity, or remoteness. * Its fecundity, or the chance it has of being followed by similar sensations: that is, pleasures, if it is pleasure: pains, if it is pain. * Its purity, or the chance it has of not being followed by, sensations of the opposite kind: that is, pain, if it is pleasure: pleasure, if it is pain. * Its extent (the number of people who are affected by it).
However, Mill's rule utilitarianism is much more relative in that he encourages people to do acts that are pleasurable to themselves as long as they are what he calls a "higher pleasure" for example, the arts like literature, poetry, the opera. However, the meta-ethics of rule utilitarianism can be questioned as they are much more absolutist, since Mill is absolute in what he values as a higher pleasure.

Concept:
Consequentialism vs Deontological ethics and the moral of Kant
Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral worth of an action is determined solely by its usefulness in maximizing utility and minimizing negative utility (utility can be defined as pleasure, minus pain, preference satisfaction, knowledge or other things) as summed among all sentient beings. So this form of consequentialism

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