Asian development bank

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Trade Facilitation and Regional Cooperation in Asia Edited by Douglas H. Brooks Assistant Chief Economist, Asian Development Bank, Philippines Susan F. Stone Senior Policy Analyst, Trade and Agriculture Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, France

ASEAN open skies and the implications for airport development strategy in Malaysia Tham Siew Yean INTRODUCTION ‘Openskies’, in general, reers to the liberalization o aviation markets that can be pursued on a bilateral, regional, or multilateral basis. However, the depth o liberalization may dier rom one open sky agreement to another as these agreements enhance the competition between airlines in dierent degrees. Capacity deregulation and the removal o price controls may also be treated dierently indierent agreements. Moreover, the geographic and unctional dimensions covered may also dier rom one agreement to another (Forsyth et al. 2004). In the case o the Association o South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), with the progressive implementation o the various ASEAN open skies agreements, it is envisaged that air trac between member countries will be progressively liberalized by 2015. Ultimately,ASEAN seeks to build a unifed aviation sector by 2015, whereby designated airlines rom a member country in ASEAN will be able operate unrestricted ights to the designated airports o other member countries. For ASEAN countries, increasing competition rom the People’s Republic o China and India has created a new impetus to enhance their competitiveness, including a renewed eort to improvetheir transporta- tion and logistics support services, or several reasons. First, the declining importance o taris has increased the importance o other types o trade transactions costs. In particular, the rise o global and regional produc- tion networks and the increasing use o just-in-time logistics, intermodal transport and new security considerations since 9/11 have changed the ace o theinternational economy and, with it, the type o trade transactions needed or exporting and importing goods. These transactions comprise a whole range o trade support services needed to send goods rom a actory in an exporting country to the importing country. Transportation and logistics support services play a key role in these transactions and there- ore can be harnessed to enhance theexport competitiveness o a country. In this way, these transactions costs also aect the competitiveness o a country as a host economy, since multinationals evaluate the

viability o each new node in their global and regional production networks based in part on the cost and availability o transport and communications in a host economy or tying that node to others already in the network(Leinbach and Bowen 2004). Second, ASEAN is an important export platorm or electronics goods whose fnal markets are the US, Europe and Japan. Air cargo services and airports are particularly important because electronic products, and spe- cifcally semiconductors, have a high value-to-weight ratio, rapid product cycles and greater risk o damage associated with sea reight. Consequently, semiconductorfrms have higher air cargo intensity, thereby rendering cargo services and airports as one o the key determinants o the competitiveness o each node in the production networks o multinational corporations (MNCs) in this sector. The signifcant variations in the quality and capacity o air cargo services in the region, including ground- based logistics services, urther magniy the importance othese services as sources o competitive advantage to the frms that use them, and the national and regional economies where these frms are located (Leinbach and Bowen 2004). Third, since tourism bears a particularly close relationship to the develop- ment o the aviation sector, the increasing demand or air travel has urther heightened the importance o air services and airport development in...