Civilisation britannique : la question de la décentraisation

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Devolution works in a sovereign state. It is the statutory granting of powers from the central government to government at a subnational level. It is a transfer of legislative authority and regulations towards parliaments or regional assemblies elected by direct vote.
Devolution is not symetric in the United Kingdom. In the UK, government was created following simple majorityreferenda in Wales and Scotland in 1997. In 1998, the Scottish Parliament, National Assembly for Wales and Northern Ireland Assembly were established by law. 18 years before, in 1979, the question of devolution has started .

Since 1997, The Labour party suggests a program of modernization and democratization of the political life and of being able to premises, that is to say a programm ofregionalization.

education in the United Kingdom : a decentralized/devoluted system

The DES ministry, which is the department of education and science, gives responsibilities to various Secretaries of State. Morover, there is local authorities which make locally schools work. This Local Education Authorities takes care of the education and supply stock scholarships at local levels.
There are433Local Education Authorities in the United Kingdom : 356 in England, 26 in Northern Ireland, 32 in Scotland and 22 in Wales.
LEA recruit teachers, determine schoolprograms and control schools. Furthermore, intendants/directors of schools and middle schools locally have so a lot of influence. As a result, schools are diversifyed in the United Kingdom.
This system is a system of watched freedombecause of a national bar. The ministry of DES makes know its requirements for the LEAs. Government controls schools thanks to the HMIs = Her Majesty's Inspectors. they wrtite reports on establishments.
For instance, ILEA ( = Inner London Education Authority )school was recently criticized a lot for their poor results regarding to the cost of its education.
There is the School Council forCurriculum and Examinations too. It is an council of several teachers who think about problems posed by the programs, the pedagogy and the level of the public examinations.

The devolutations of the states
unionists / republicans / sinn fein

In Northern Ireland :

The issue of the devolution in Northern England was and is an important question in british politics. It's Daniel O'Connell inthe first half of the nineteenth century who wanted the northern irish devolution. And it means the end of the Act of union (1800) and the creation of a separate parliament not subservient to the British parliament and only sharing queen (for instance) between great britain and Northern Ireland.
As a result oft the Belfast/good friday Agreement in april 1998, a devolved Assembly was Created. TheAssembly was intended to bring the different communities to govern Northern Ireland together.
The Belfast agreement created an northern Irish assembly of 108 members with powers common to those of Scotland. There are a Prime Minister, a vice-prime Minister ans 10 other Ministers. They take care of the main part of the institutions which deal with the republic of Ireland for instance.

FromOctober 2002, it was not operational, due to a breakdown in the Northern Ireland peace process but, on 13 October 2006, British and Irish governments announced a "road map" to restore devolution to Northern Ireland. Since the Belfast agreement in April 1998, there is an assembly with 108 member. They can vote theit laws about education and schools, about health and about the level of taxes. Thereare a first and a vice-first minister.

So, I now explain you the historical issue in Ireland in order to understand in which way the question of devolution in Northen Ireland is important.

At the time of the reformation, Henri VIII (1491-1547), the King of England, a Protestant and a very popular figure in Irland, tried to establish the new faith there nad destroy Catholicism. He was...
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