Practical books that inspire
Exams are Easy When You Know How Change your attitude, thinking and technique and never fail an exam Essay to Write? Make it good, make it easy, make it fun! Writing an Assignment Eﬀective ways to improve your research and presentation skills Critical Thinking for Students Learn the skills of critical assessment and eﬀective argumentWriting Your Dissertation How to plan, prepare and present successful work
Please send for a free copy of the latest catalogue: How To Books 3 Newtec Place, Magdalen Road, Oxford OX4 1RE, United Kingdom email: firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.howtobooks.co.uk
Practical Research Methods
A user-friendly guide to mastering research techniques and projects
D R CAT H E R I N E DAW S O N
For my Dad
First published in 2002 by How To Books Ltd, 3 Newtec Place, Magdalen Road, Oxford OX4 1RE. United Kingdom. Tel: (01865) 793806. Fax: (01865) 248780. email: email@example.com http://www.howtobooks.co.uk All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or stored in an information retrieval system (other than for purposes of review) without theexpress permission of the publisher in writing. # 2002 Dr Catherine Dawson British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Cover design by Baseline Arts Ltd, Oxford Produced for How To Books by Deer Park Productions Edited by Diana Brueton Typeset by PDQ Typesetting, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staﬀs. Printed and bound by CromwellPress, Trowbridge, Wiltshire
NOTE: The material contained in this book is set out in good faith for general guidance and no liability can be accepted for loss or expense incurred as a result of relying in particular circumstances on statements made in the book. The laws and regulations are complex and liable to change, and readers should check the current position with the relevant authoritiesbefore making personal arrangements.
Preface 1 How to Deﬁne Your Project Asking questions The ﬁve ‘Ws’ Summary 2 How to Decide Upon a Methodology Understanding the diﬀerence between qualitative and quantitative research Summary Further reading 3 How to Choose Your Research Methods Interviewing Focus groups Questionnaires Participant observation Choosing your methods Summary Furtherreading 4 How to Conduct Background Research Primary research and secondary research Summary Further reading 5 How to Choose Your Participants Sampling Sample size Summary Further reading 6 How to Prepare a Research Proposal The contents of a proposal ix 1 1 4 13 14 14 22 23 27 27 29 30 32 33 37 38 40 40 45 46 47 47 49 53 54 55 56
vi / P R A C T I C A L R E S E A R C H M E T H O D S
Whatmakes a good proposal? Reasons why research proposals fail Summary Further reading 7 How to Conduct Interviews Methods of recording The interview schedule Establishing rapport Asking questions and probing for information Summary Further reading 8 How to Conduct Focus Groups The role of the moderator Recording equipment Choosing a venue Recruiting your participants Summary Further reading 9 How toConstruct Questionnaires Deciding which questionnaire to use Wording and structure of questions Length and ordering of questions Piloting the questionnaire Obtaining a high response Summary Further reading 10 How to Carry Out Participant Observation Gaining access Ethics Collecting and analysing information Withdrawal from the ﬁeld Summary Further reading 11 How to Analyse Your Data Deciding whichapproach to use
60 61 62 63 64 64 67 70 71 73 75 76 77 80 81 82 84 85 87 87 89 93 95 97 99 100 101 102 103 105 107 107 108 110 110
C O N T E N T S / vii
Qualitative data analysis Quantitative data analysis Measuring data Summary Further reading 12 How to Report Your Findings Written reports Written report format Journal articles Oral presentations Summary Further reading 13 How to be...