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First of all, in his speech julien is very clear about the motivations for independence. He is one of the representants of the anti-colonialist movement. He say that colonised peoplejust want to be recognize as equals, they are tired of being considered as inferior. They want to "be accpeted by the white man". The WW2 is also an important cause because the colonies fought fortheir metropolis , they fought an unknown ennemy that meant nothing to them, the colonies were used as humains resources or economical to the metropolis and to the war. So it was normal that they wereexpected a bit of a recognation for the hard work they've done, and the loss they suffer. But nothing really happened, and the metropolises started to be less impressive, and prestigal because some ofthem lost the war such as France that was occupied( vichy), their prestige is ruined as they used the violence and force to dominate.
During the inter-war, the elites indigenes who were cultivatedstarted to claim the power ( gandhi in india, Ho Chi Minh in indonesia) , they are the speaker for the will of national emancipation. Colonised people fell humiliated by the hard work almost forced, thedeculturalisation, they feel humilated by being so dominated that they lost there nationalism. They want their condition and quality of life to be improved, they want to change and to assertthemselves. They revendicate a civic equality and interne autonomy.
The USA and the USSR proclaim themselves as the two heros of anti-colonialism. The USSR for an anti-imperialsm ideologyand moreover to enlarged its zone of influence ( communism) . The USA mostly see an economic asset, but also an ideology of anti-colonialism. The ONU is the tribune of the colonialist debat, theyproclaim the people's right to self-determination. The 1st declarations of independence were Indonesia on the 17 of August 1945, the 2 of September 1945 for the Vietnam, the philipines in 1946 etc......