Vasco da Gama (1498)
Vasco de Gama was the first to discover a sea road in 1498. He landed in Calicut in the present-day Indian state of Kerala. At that time there were already Arab merchants and they disagreed to let “Vasco da Gama” stay there.
Francisco de Almeida (1505-1509)
On March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed“Viceroy of India”. There were only one condition for him, he would set up four forts in south India coast: at “Anjediva Island, Cannanore, Cochin and Quilon.
Afonso de Albuquerque(1509-1515)
In the year 1509, “Afonso de Albuquerque” was appointed the second Viceroy of the Portuguese possessions in the east. In 1510, he established a permanent settlement in Goa. Goa was the headquarters ofPortuguese in India and seat of the Portuguese viceroy who governed the Portuguese possessions in Asia. The Portuguese acquired several territories from the Sultans of “Gujarat”: “Salsette, Bombay, Baçaim and Diu”. Mombay was given to Britain in 1661(part of Portuguese Princess’s dowry to “Charles 2 of England”.
Portuguese in Kerala/Region of England) (1498 to 1660)
Though the Portuguese were in Goafrom 1530 till 1960, the Portuguese under “Vasco da Gama” first came to Calicut in 1498 and then shifted their base to Kochi and Kollam, where they ruled (or influenced the rule) and had their major presence for nearly 160 years changing the course of history in regard to politics, religion and trade in Kerala. Until the liberation of India in 1961 Goa was the capital of Portuguese in India.Dutch India
The Dutch East India Company or VOC in Dutch was a chartered company established in 1602. It was the first multinational corporation in the world and the first company to issue stock. It was also the first company who had possessed the quasi-governmental powers.
Between 1602 and 1796 the VOC sent more than 2.5 million tons of Asian goods. The capital was Cochin, on the Malabar Coast.Danish India
The Danish colonies in India were founded by the “Danish East India Company”, which was active from the 17th centuries to the 19th centuries. The capital of the Danish empire was “Fort Dansborg” at Tranquebard, established in 1620, on the Coromandel Coast.
The first french expedition to India is believed to have taken place in the reign of “Francois premier”.French India is a general name for the former French possessions in India. These included Pondicherry, Karikal and Yanaon (now Yañam) on the Coroman.
On February 1673, a French officer, took up residence in the Danish Lodge in Pondicherry ad the French Period of Pondicherry began. The first governor was “Francois Martin” who stared to build it and transformed it from a small fishingvillage into a flourishing port-town. The British took Pondicherry in 1760 and was razed to the ground in revenge and lay in ruins for four years. During the next 50 years Pondicherry changed hands between France and Britain with the regularity of their wars and peace treaties.The independence of India in August 1947 created the end of French colonies in India. They lost the Lodges Machilipatnam,Kozhikode and Surat in 1947 and the rest of the colonies were made shortly after the Indians.
The British in India
The East India Company
The Company was initially planned to create a trade between the two sides of the world. In 1601, Sir James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage. The English traders won a large part of territory belonging to the Portuguese after theBattle of Swally in 1612. In 1615, the Company arranged for a commercial treaty which gave them exclusive right to build factories in India and in return, the Company sent to an Indian emperor goods from Europe. As a consequence, it gave the British more strength against their counterparts which allowed them to expand their commercial trading. The English Parliament did not think it was...