La politique agricole commune

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European Institution
The CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) was created in 1957 with the treaty of Rome. It was an excellent idea to modernize the farming. We can see an augmentation about the productivity. But since several years, the CAP was criticizing on its price and on its distribution. That’s why we can ask if the CAP is very effective? So, in a first part we’ll seethe advantages of the CAP and in a second part, we will analyze all the fault.
I/ The CAP’s advantage.
If we speak about the CAP, we are obliged to present a short historic. It was created in 1957 by the treaty of Rome and it came into force in 1962, its goal was to intervene on the price about the agricultural market and they tax the importation to incite people to buy the European product.Since 1970, the government was subsidized the exportations.
To resume, as far as 1992, the CAP served in a first time to guarantee the price; thus, more the farmer have a big production he received more assistance about the CAP. And in the second time, the rest of the budget was to pay the subvention for the exportation.
In 1992, the CAP was stopped to guarantee the price to the farmer and theydecided to develop the rural economy in 1995.
In 2002 the CAP limited the subventions despite 10 new country which enter on the EU, so as far as 2013 the subventions are going to reduce.
In 2003-2004, the CAP cut the distribution of the subventions according to the food security and the environmental protection.
In 2009, the government adopted the “examination of the CAP” which its goal is todecrease the fallow and to increase the milk quota.
The principal’s objectives of the CAP are:
* To increase productivity, by promoting technical progress and ensuring the optimum use of the factors of production, in particular labor.
* To ensure a fair standard of living for the agricultural Community.
* To stabilize markets.
* To secure availability of supplies.
* To provideconsumers with foods at reasonable prices.
The CAP stabilizes markets because it’s tax the importation to incite the European farmer to buy their products in Europe. More than the CAP subsidize the exportations and if it doesn’t give these, there is no exportation or many less in Europe because the products are too expensive.
Between the CAP, only France assured their self-sufficiency and today,thanks to the CAP, all the European country are in self-sufficiency. More than, the country saw their production which grew but they don’t had the possibility to produce very efficient because they don’t had some new tractors or new knowledge in manure… with the CAP, all the country which enter in the European Union have all the knowledge in agriculture.
Next, the CAP it’s very important forthe next farmer because it will give subventions to create the farm, to train people who work on the farm.
Finally, the CAP is important because it permit to control our alimentation, it guaranteed an alimentation healthily and with a good quality.
We can see this Agricultural policy is very important because 10% of the European Union jobs are dependant of these subsidies.
But even if the CAP isa good thing for the farmer, it was very criticize by a lot of people.
II/ The fault of the CAP.
The Common Agricultural Policy represents 48% of the European Union’s budget or 49.8€ billion in 2006. It was a very big part of the European budget but the CAP it’s the only Common policy in Europe. Since 2003 and the enter of 10 country in the European Union, this budget is no more important andthey separate this in 25 country and no more in 15 so the farmer criticize this.
The CAP encourages the intensive agriculture because the subventions are deliver according to the yield. So the big farmer has a lot of subventions and the small farmer have the rest. 80% of the subventions are going to only 20% farmer. More than, 40% of the farmer have only 4% of the subventions.
When the price are...