Leadership androgene

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THESIS

Leadership style:
A “female characteristics” inspired facilitative style
or
an androgynous style

Caroline Coulombe

5th of December, 2003

A thesis in the department of Psychology to be submitted to the faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Science in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at New York University

Sponsor:
ElizabethHowell

MA Director:
Barry Cohen
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………p. i
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………. p.ii
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………...p.iii

CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………...p.4
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Leadership…………………………………………………………………..…p.5
2. Male’s point of view in leadership ...…………..……………………..………p.8
3.Female’s point of view in leadership………………….……………..………p.10
4. The androgynous style……………………………………………………… p.13
5. Thesis problem: a new style of leadership……………………………… …p.16
3. RESEARCH DESIGN
1. Conceptual assumption..………………………………………………..……p.17
2. Hypothesis and Variables……………………………………………………p.18
1. Research Questions
2. Dependent & Independent Variables
3.Participants……………………………………………………………….….p.19
4. Instruments…………………………………………………………………..p.19
5. Expected Results………………………………………………………….….p.20
6. Procedure………………………………………………………………….…p.21
7. Study limitations……………………………………….. …………………...p.22

4. WHAT THE NUMBERS TELL US
1. Analysis- Tests used……………………………………..…………… ……p.23
2. Sampling Description………………………………………………………p.23
3. Types ofleadership style: Feminine? Masculine? Neutral?……..………p.24
1. Paired samples correlations: current vs. ideal
2. Paired samples correlations: yourself ideal vs. boss ideal

4. Correlations in the rating of the various type of characteristics..…..….p.27
5. Comparisons of participants’ rating on the three categories
of characteristics – masculine, feminine, andneutral…………….….….p.29
6. Comparison according to predictors…………..……………………….…p.34
1. Comparison according to gender
2. Comparison according to citizenship
7. Part C Questionnaire – Which characteristics are dominant? …………p.37
1. PC1- Most important characteristic of the ideal boss
2. PC2- Most important attribute participants would like to possess as being an ideal bossthemselves
3. PC3- Attributes that are believed to have hindered or would hinder participants’ career
4. PC4- Most important traits a leader should have
5. PC5- Most important traits a male leader should have
6. PC6- Most important traits a female leader should have

5. DISCUSSION
1. Primary Outcome : androgynous leadership style or not………..………p.40
2.Secondary Outcomes : gender and citizenship……………………………p.41

6. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………p.1

BIBLIOGRAPHY....……………………..…………………………………………p.1

APPENDICES
A. Questionnaire………………………………………….………………………p.1
B. ……………………………………………………………….…………………p.1
C. Part C-SPSS …………………….. ……………………………………………p.1
1. INTRODUCTION

Women often lean toward facilitative leadership, which iscontrary to their male counterparts. This type of leadership style allows others to make contributions through delegation, encouragement, and nudging from behind (Porat, 1991). Many women support contributive, consensual decision making and emphasize the process by encouraging feelings of self-worth, active participation, and sharing of power and information (Porat, 1991; Getskow, 1996). Chliwniak(1997) states that while women embrace relationships and the sharing process, men often focus on the completion of tasks, achieving goals, the hoarding of information and winning. Conner (1992) notes also that men tend to lead through concrete exchanges while Eakle (1995) states that women are more interested in transforming people’s self-interest into organizational goals through the...
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