Comparing and Contrasting the Social and Economic Policies of Hitler and Mussolini
Phase One (‘Partial Fascism’)
- New Plan was developed by Schacht in September 1934. The plan was aimed at developing a considerable trade balance (exports vs. imports)
- Another main focus of the first phase was a severe reduction in unemployment. Elimination of tradeunions powers and a control of wages was also established. - Plan of corporativism introduced in 1926 marked Mussolini’s attempt to change and structure the economy. Rocco Law (1926) divided the economy into seven areas.
- The idea of corporativism was introduced by Mussolini in 1936 and was aimed at replacing trade unions and employers organizations.
Phase Two (‘Four Year Plan’)
- The FourYear Plan replaced the New Plan in 1936. The focus of this plan was to achieve autarky in agriculture and industry. This was supposed to be achieved through increased productivity and output.
- Hitler was aiming for “economics rearmament” which would therefore increase the military strength of the German Reich.
- Göring replaced Schacht in 1936/37 but the targets were not met even thoughconsiderable success was remarked, as 1/3 of raw materials still had to be imported. (no autarky) - This corporativism and the Rocco Law caused state control of the industry. It was an attempt to tackle the problems caused by the Great Depression in 1929.
- The initial passive state intervention from 1922-25 was changed by Mussolini into a more influential thought.
- Mussolini favored the heavyindustry. First, private enterprises were encouraged but by 1930 the Great Depression caused this state intervention.
- Autarky was also an important goal and by 1940 the Italian industry had become more successful, improving raw materials and the industrial sector.
Phase Three (‘Blitzkrieg’)
- Even though the Blitzkrieg was a military strategy it was also focused on the economy, aiming at theattack on Poland or France. The economic part was that the neighboring could be invaded without using the full economics resources and efficiency.
- All the foreign industries from the occupied countries were absorbed until 1941 (France, Denmark or Poland) - Revaluation of the lira in 1929. This was supposed to encourage Italy’s international competitiveness.
- Corporativism was further developed in1934 when the 7 branches were expanded into 22. By 1938 this was placed into the political system (state intervention)
- Mussolini also tried to encourage grain production and managed to double this from 1922 to 1939. (“Battle for Grain”
Phase Four (‘total war’)
- After the passive economics Blitzkrieg policy the attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 opened the total war economy. The industrywas pushed to its limit.
- Under Speer the industry was focused on armament production to supply the German Army. German was still out produced by the USSR and the USA which ultimately was the end of the German Reich.
Bracher: “At no time did National Socialism develop a consistent economics or social theory.” - Italy was quickly defeated in the Second World War as it had developed too slowafter the Great Depression.
- Italy’s military industry lacked considerable strength as Mussolini had focused more on agriculture and the policy of corporativism.
Lee: “The result was a confusion of two strategies which had implications also for social policies.”
- at first Hitler said that Christianity was “the unshakable foundation of themoral and ethical life of our people.”
- July 1933 – all protestant churches are centralized into one single Reichs Church.
- Opposition to this was created by Pastor Niemöller called the confessional church which was banned in 1937.
- The early support by the Catholics (centre party) in 1933 (assistance for enabling act) ended rapidly when the Nazi’s started anti-catholic moves. By 1937 the pope...
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