Django reinhardt and the gypsy jazz

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VERPILLAT Matthieu

DJANGO REINHARDT AND THE GYPSY JAZZ.

SUMMARY

0. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………. p. 1

1. DEfinition AND origines……………………………………………………. p. 1

2. ROUTE OF DJANGO IN JAZZ …...................……………………………………. p. 2

3.THE HEIRS OF DJANGO OR THE GYPSY JAZZ 40's to 2000 …….……...........p. 4

DISCOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………….. p. 6FILMOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………………. p. 6

0.INTRODUCTION

Within the Gypsy jazz movement we usually know the name Jean-Baptiste "Django" Reinhardt (1910-1953), founder of this style, legendary figure which history has accorded the status of genius to. Some people keep in mind the scene from the movie Swing by Tony Gatlif, in which Tchavolo Schmitt displays his guitar skills. Others will rather appreciate the rhythm ofSanseverino's music.
This kind of music, with its apparent uniformity, actually hides an actively rich scene of different trends that we invite you to discover in the third part of this document.
To better appreciate the diversity, it has previously been useful to draw a broad picture of the career of Django Reinhardt, as his influence on gypsy music is substantial.
And as the gypsy jazz did not appearex nihilo in 1934, we begin by recalling briefly the origins of the trend and the musical context in which it appeared.

DEfinition AND origines.

Django the Gypsy met Jazz in the early 30s. From their union was born a new style, a unique way to interpret jazz, a real school. What are the ingredients in the recipe? How and in what environment did the meeting happen? This is what we willanalyse in this first part.

Let us focus for a while on terminology. The term "gypsy jazz" is used in this recent years to describe the music of Django Reinhardt and his followers.
But from "gypsy jazz" to "tzigane jazz" through "gypsy swing",we can find different expressions in the books, articles and shelves of stores . All mean more or less the same thing. History can however understandwhere these words come from and nuances their meaning.
Around the tenth century, groups of nomads have left northern India to got west. The reasons and conditions of this migration remains unclear. The fact is that over the following centuries, the descendants of these tribes (named Gypsies because seen as Athingani, members of a sect in Asia Minor) were scattered throughout the Middle East,Eastern and Western Europe, where their presence is acknowledged since the fifteenth century. They were called Bohemians, which means "those supposed to come from the Kingdom of Bohemia” (western part of the current Czech Republic), or Egyptians because they were supposed to come from Little Egypt (which corresponds today to Epirus region of Greece near the Albanian border). Egyptian turned intoGypsy in English, Gitanos in Spanish, a term used to describe Gypsies as a whole. In French, we naturally tend to use gitan as a synonym of Gypsy. This can however be confusing when we know that different communities have been formed within the Gypsy people: Sinti from Piedmont, gypsies of Spain and southern France, Manouche of Alsace ... To further complicate things, let us notice that therepresentatives of these groups, meeting for a convention in 1971, chose "Roma" as a generic term for all of them while the French apply this word for a specific group of Central Europe...
This shows the ambiguity of the term "gypsy jazz", the adjective that can encompass all Gypsies or designate a very specific community of this set. Speaking of Gypsy jazz seems more appropriate. In 1959, Michel-ClaudeJalard published in Cahiers du Jazz a study entitled Django and Gypsy jazz school. A quick course of bibliographies compiled on this topic shows that the expression has met with the favor of critics until the early 90s. Subsequently, the "manouche jazz" has supplanted the "tzigane jazz". Fashion trend? Marketing? Maybe. The evolution of words is important too, especially...
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