Account for disparities in development within one named country: CHINA
Some historical extra features:
*from 1949 to 1976: Mao Zedong. (Founded the People’s Republic of China)
*from 1976 to 1992: Deng Xiaoping. (This generation turned the focus from class struggle and political movements to economic development, pioneering Chinese economic reform.)
*from 1992 to 2003: Jiang Zemin.
*Currently (and likely to last until 2013): Hu Jintao.
Over the past 30 years, China has transformed itself, posting extraordinary rates of growth and increasing the living standards of nearly all its citizens. At the same time, China has become a far less equal nation, with vast differences emerging between those living in rural versus urban areas, inland versus coastal areas, andglobally oriented versus more insular areas.
The causes of these disparities include a wide range of factors: “natural” as well as “structural” features (geographical differences, imbalance in China’s industrial structure…) which are favourable to the divide of the country; government policies that address market distortions; and preferential treatment that favors the eastern coastal areas.Plan: 1: western China vs Eastern China
2: government policies that have favored development in the coastal areas
3: the gap has widened: rural-urban migration, income disparities…: 2 distinct macro economies.
I. Western China vs Eastern China
The territory of the western region is vast, its population sparse, and its undeveloped economic resources need to bestrengthened and exploited. Of the China's poor who lack adequate food and clothing, the majority live in this region. It is also the region in which most of China's minority nationalities live.
Advantages: * The region is extremely rich in natural resources (water resource, huge coal reserves, petroleum and gas, rare metals…). * Extensive borders (attractive outlook for international trade with theborder countries).* Tourist and cultural resources.
Disadvantages: *poor or no historical industrialization. * Rural workforce with very low level of instruction and health. *difficult geographical relief and no infrastructures to attract investments.*Inland China is really far from the dynamic core, and there is a dramatic lack of transportation network (freeways…) as well as means ofcommunication.* A weak legal system.* Local government inefficiency.
Remark: it cannot be denied that there are some industrial centers in the interior and southwest provinces (mainly provincial capitals) but this development results from infrastructure financed by the government, the consumption growth, and also partially by the remittances migrants working on the coast sent back home.
It showsChina’s freeway system (réseau des autoroutes), where prosperous eastern China can be seen distinctly between the inland. The contrast increases when you look at the colors. The routes color coded in Blue are completed, but the freeways coded in Red are under construction (!)
Despite development, primary industries continue to dominate much of China’seconomic life. Low paying subsidence agriculture and traditional nomadic activities continue to define the economy. Due to their isolation and lack of infrastructure, provinces of the southwest and much of the interior remain largely underdeveloped.
Easy access to markets, cheap labor and well developed infrastructure and transportation networks have made possibleindustrial development and foreign investment in China’s coastal region. Textile and other manufacturing jobs centered around Shanghaï and Hong-Kong are slowly expanding into nearby provinces.
International trade, finance, insurance and construction services drive the economy of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. As China develops, service industries are increasingly playing a greater...
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