State in transition and corruption. Comparative analysis.
The government and public administration’s fundamental mission is the one of serving the public interest. The citizens wish that the public servants do their duty in an honest, correct and impartial way. More and more, is compulsory for the administration to take measures so that the public servants could not discreditthe process of taking the official and public administration decisions through the interests and their personal relations. In the conditions in which the society demands are higher and higher, the governmental measures concerning the decrease of the corruption are due to be more and more concise and efficient.
The corruption represents a threat for democracy, for the supremacy of right, ofsocial equity and justice, erodes the principles of an efficient administration, undermines the market economy and endangers the stability of state institutions.
With a history of thousand of years, beginning as far back as antiquity, the corruption represents one of the behavioral models among most bad, but, in the same time, extremely prevalent among the officials and the selected representativesof the community. In the last century, corruption refers also to the behavior of those working in the private area. Although there are numberless of studies concerning this theme, by now, one cannot come up to a universal valid definition and unanimous accepted, carry to cover all the papers and the possible facts and which to constitute in any jurisdiction actions of corruption.
1. Thedefinition of the corruption
The majority of authors consider that one single definition, generically valid, cannot be given to this phenomenon. In the Romanian language, the term is known with the sense of ”obliquity from the morality, as an act of infringement of the social limits”. The term of corruption drifts from the Latin “coruptio, -onis”, which means obliquity from the morality,honesty, but also immorality, debauchery. According to other authors, the root of the word “corruption” descends from the Latin verb “rumpere”, nominating, therefore, a fracture, a fissure, a crime.
The break can consist in the violation of a moral rule or a social code, of conduct, or of an administrative settlement, but, each time, the one inclined to such violations follows the procurement forhim, his family, his friends or social groups, for an advantage to its direct reward.
Internationally, the problem of the notion of corruption is interdisciplinary treated. J. A. Gardiner appreciated that to the phenomenon of corruption one cannot give a single definition, because corruption is a national and international problem with multiple forms of manifestation, having variousdepartures.
Also, according to E. Hirsch Ballin, the phenomenon of corruption is demonstrated on different paths, as “a monster with many heads". In their researches, the theoreticians on this area formulated various definitions, sometimes different enough from one another, from the ones with an evasive, ambiguously and crossover content, to the ones with a large sphere of capaciousness which outclassesthe area of what can represent the phenomenon researched.
Sociologically speaking, the corruption is considerate that stand of normative and moral unbalance of those societies found out in crisis, because it disturbs gravely the development of social relations to the institutional and interpersonal level, causing the diminution of the prestige and authority of public and private institutions aswell as of instances specialized in control and social prevention, due to the implication in different business of some persons with appointments depending on decision from politics, legislative and executive authority, administration and justice.
As a social phenomenon, the corruption can be considerate the expression of an exercise of putridity, of spiritual degradation, which, through its...
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