M1 Chapter summary Ch. 7 - The law of Tort INTENTIONAL TORTS: I.Trespass to land (intentional tort) an intentional, volitional act causing a physical invasion of a plaintiff’s land. Trespass to land(NB: involves P’s 1 interest in the exclusive possession of the property, requires intent and an actual physical invasion, but does not require any harm at all to the property.) A.Elements to trespassto land 1.Physical invasion (person, tree limb overhangs P’s land, D2 ﬂoods P’s land, etc.) 2.Possessory interest 3.Intent (unlike other intentional torts, intent refers not to consequences, butmerely to the entry) 4.Land (includes space above and below the surface, which the owner may reasonably and lawfully make use). 5.Damages (need not be proved, but may be presumed). II.Trespass to person(intentional tort) A.Assault a volitional act, done with the intent to create a reasonable apprehension of a battery or the intent to commit a battery, causing a plaintiff to experience a reasonableapprehension of a battery. 1.Elements to assault a)Apprehension b)Imminent contact B.Battery a volitional act, done with the intent to inﬂict harmful or offensive contact, which causes a plaintiff tosuffer a harmful or offensive contact.
P = plaintiff D= defendant
1.Elements to battery a)Harmful or offensive contact b)Person of another c)Intent d)Causation e)Damages C.Cases / Law1.Wilson v Pringle (1987) QB 237 D.Defamation (intentional tort) 1.Slander (≈ spoken) 2.Libel (≈ written) a)Defenses to defamation (1)Truth (2)fair comment (3)absolute privilege E.Cases / Law 1.Sim vStretch (1936) 2.Monson v Tussands (1894) 3.Defamation Act 1996 4.The Robbie Williams libel case
F.Defenses to intentional torts 1.Consent
2.Self defense 3.Defense of others
4.Defense ofproperty 5.Necessity ⇒ public or private NEGLIGENCE: III.Negligence A.Elements 1.Duty (foreseeability; standard of care: reasonable person in the circumstances) see Donoghue v Stevenson (1932) AC 562;...
Lire le document complet
Veuillez vous inscrire pour avoir accès au document.