Carbonyl compounds

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Carbonyl compounds

Introduction

The carbonyl group is the functional group of aldehydes and ketones. They have a double bond oxygen to a carbon. The compounds which contain them are named :carbonyl compounds, but what are their features? We are going to answer this question with first present you the aldehydes and the ketones: their definitions, their nomenclatures. Then we will see theirphysicals and chemicals properties. And finally their use in everyday life.

I/ Aldehydes

a. Definition

An aldehyde is an organic compound. It takes part of the carbonyl compounds familywhose one of primary carbon atoms (connected to more than 1 carbon atom) of the carbon chain has a carbonyl group.

b. Nomenclature



An aldehyde is a carbonyl compound whose the functional carbonis linked to an hydrogen and is double linked to an oxigen. The name of the aldehyde is formed by adding the suffix “al” behalf of the hydrocarbon corresponding to the main chain.

The generalformula is CnH2nO

II/ Ketones

a. Definition

A ketone is an organic compound. It takes part of the carbonyl compounds family whose one of primary carbon atoms (connected to more than 2 carbonsatoms) of the carbon chain has a carbonyl group.

b. Nomenclature


In organic chemistry, a ketone is a compound with the structure R1C(=O)R2, where R1 and R2 are carbonyl compounds. The name ofthe aldehyde is formed by adding the suffix “one” behalf of the hydrocarbon corresponding to the main chain.

The general formula is CnH2nO

III/ Physical and chemical properties

a. Physicalproperties

Ketones and aldehydes have a highter boiling temperature than alcanes and alcenes for the same molar mass.
Stemed compouds have an lower boiling temperature than non stemed compoundsbecause the cohesion of stemed chains is less important than the linear chains.
More chains are high, more their boiling temperature in water are high.
More chains are high, more the ketones and...
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