European law

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LECTURE 2 : Introduction to the EU
• European Union: It is a community of member states, which by establishing a common market and an economic and monetary union, and by implementing common policies and activities, aims to promote throughout the community a harmonious and balanced development of economic activities, sustainable and non-inflationary growth respecting the environment, a highdegree of convergence of economic performance, a high level of employment and a social protection, the raising of the standard of living and quality of life, an economic and social cohesion and solidarity among member states.
• The EU (1957) is an economic an partly political union of 27 member states, which are located in Europe. It has developed a common market throughout all member states andensures the free movement of people, goods, services and capital. It is committed to peace and solidarity through regional integration.
• Founding members: Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Germany, Italy
• A single currency: € shared by 16 countries
A motto: United in diversity
A flag: circle of 12 gold stars on a blue background
• Citizens of the EU: they can travel across most of theEU without passport and they can live, work, study or retire in another EU country.
• Who can join: Any European country that has a stable democracy, that ensures the rules of law, that respects human rights and protection of minorities and to have a functioning market economy
• The EU law has become an integral source of lax in all member states.

LECTURE 3: History of the EU
• Why the EUwas created:
- WW1 and WW2
- Fear of the spread of communism
- Fear of US domination
- Pressure from the USA
- Marshall plan
- For peace and unity
- To protect human rights
- To promote democracy
- To protect each other by political and military means
• Supremacy of European Law: EU laws take priority over. The supremacy of European law over national law is the single most importantprinciple of EU law

LECTURE 4: The key Treaties
• The European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty, 1957: In 1956 (Spaak Report), 5 stages of integration, which are creation of a free trade area, creation of a customs union, creation of a common market, common economic and monetary policy, complete political and military integration. The EEC treaty was signed in 1957 by the same 6countries as for theEU. The aims were to secure peace through closer relations and to promote prosperity by the establishment of a common market. It also propose a common agriculture, transport, economic policies. The EEC created political and judicial institutions such as The European Parliament, The council of European Union, The European Commission, The court of Justice. The EEC is able to conclude treaties withother countries.
• The Single European Act, 1986: It is first a revision of the EEC with 12 MS. The aim was to revive the stagnant integration process by setting a deadline for the elimination of remaining barriers in the creation of a common market. It extended the use of the QMV and introduced more democracy into the Community by strengthening the role of the European Parliament.
• The treatyof the European Union, 1992 (The Maastricht Treaty): The name of the EEC become the European Community (EC). It created a new model for the Community based around 3 pillars to be known as the European Union.
- The first relates to common economic policies, monetary union. The decisions passed by a majority vote.
- The second is concerned with common foreign et security policy. Decisions requireunanimous consent.
- The third is concerned with police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. Decisions require unanimous consent.
• The treaty of Amsterdam, 1997: It sketched out a framework for the future accession of 12 new MS. It expended the number of decisions made by QMV and created greater flexibility by allowing for some countries to move faster along the path to integration...
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