Chapter 1 : Intoducing Communication
Etymologycally speaking, communication derives from the latin word "communis" that means common.It has reached a higher level of importance,so that any member of a society can't do without it.People communicate in different manners according their means.Some will fix meetings ,others will use divers means ofcommunication such as the cell phone ,the internet so on.
In this first chapter, i’ll firstable give a defination of communication.Then i'll try to establish historical links between communication and the american researchers.
1.2 Communication: any definition?
Although, up to now,there isn't any exhaustive definition ,some experts tried to bring answers upon this problematicsuch as Shannon and Richards.While the first analyzes into communication from a scientific view,the second adopts a humanistic approach.But these two views are linked eachother,in other words they are complementary.To make of these two theories unanimous,scientists like Frey, Friedman so on attempted to embrace both approaches.
1.3 History of communication
The evolution ofcommunication theory knew seven historical periods which reflect everlasting tensions between the social and the humanists in America.
1.3.1 PERIOD 1:The emergence of rhetoric (1900-1950)
In the beginning of the 1900, a group of some speech teachers, because of the no consideration shown to them,they decided to create thier own academic discipline and an independant department of speech,divorcing with NCT.At the begining their association was called NAATPS.It's after that she responded under the name of (SAA).
1.3.2 Period 2 Communication, Social Sciences and the effects of Media(1930-1960)
In this period ,the definition of communication’s word refering to the mass media and its study which was considered as a none efficient mean of communication by the rethoricians so that itwas necessary to find good means of information during the secon word war.
For the realization of such project ,many scientists activate themselves trying to analyze the best manner in which the messages will be well percieve by the puch. Among them ,we have harold a political scientist who developped the theory of the five questions,the sociologist Lazarsfeld who worked on his Radio ResearchProject and finally Shramm ,the creator of the first doctoral programme in mass communication .
1.3.3 Period 3 : Empirical Resolution and Seed of a Theory of Communication (1950-197)
In the 1950 s,rhetoric gained more and more power so that a group a communication created the International C ommunication Assocition to oppose the SAA.During this time Shanon and weaver set a linear model ofcommunication which a gave a new approach of the identity of communication.Few years later the abbreviation SAA changed into SCA(Speech Communication Association).
1.3.4 Period 4 TheChaotic Sitution in Americaand the Need for Interpersonal Communication (1960-1970)
This period was very troubled by many evils in the american society which incited the researchers to abandon the study ofpublic address and to focalize in the dyadic interaction.Despite all these problems that faced rhetoric,it continue to survive.
1.3.5 Period 5 : The New Rhetoric(1965-1980)
The theory of Aristotle in the period was strongly criticized by Edward Black in his book but his contrary opinion didn’t prevail over Aristotle’s one.then, further to it,rhetoric critics became aware of the none efficienceof crafted persuasive speeches.
Until 1970 ,the experts in communication were unware of the skills possesed by european scholars in criticism and sociology thatwhen they knew it,they supply them with logical arms to oppose the social scientists.
1.3.6 Period 6 : Joint efforts for a Universal Model(1970-1980)
This period saw the collaboration between the researchersin pubilc communication...
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