Sciences cognitives

Pages: 57 (14133 mots) Publié le: 23 février 2011
Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2007.58:1-23. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by University of Oregon on 12/07/06. For personal use only.

Research on Attention Networks as a Model for the Integration of Psychological Science
Michael I. Posner and Mary K. Rothbart1
Psychology Department, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-1291; email: mposner@darkwing.uoregon.edu,maryroth@darkwing.uoregon.edu

Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2007. 58:1–23 First published online as a Review in Advance on October 9, 2006 The Annual Review of Psychology is online at http://psych.annualreviews.org This article’s doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085516 Copyright c 2007 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0066-4308/07/0110-0001$20.00
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Key Words
attention, candidate genes, orienting, neuralnetworks, temperament

Abstract
As Titchener pointed out more than one hundred years ago, attention is at the center of the psychological enterprise. Attention research investigates how voluntary control and subjective experience arise from and regulate our behavior. In recent years, attention has been one of the fastest growing of all fields within cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience.This review examines attention as characterized by linking common neural networks with individual differences in their efficient utilization. The development of attentional networks is partly specified by genes, but is also open to specific experiences through the actions of caregivers and the culture. We believe that the connection between neural networks, genes, and socialization provides a commonapproach to all aspects of human cognition and emotion. Pursuit of this approach can provide a basis for psychology that unifies social, cultural, differential, experimental, and physiological areas, and allows normal development to serve as a baseline for understanding various forms of pathology. D.O. Hebb proposed this approach 50 years ago in his volume Organization of Behavior and continued withintroductory textbooks that dealt with all of the topics of psychology in a common framework. Use of a common network approach to psychological science may allow a foundation for predicting and understanding human behavior in its varied forms.

We appreciate the invitation of the editors of the Annual Review of Psychology to submit a prefatory essay to this year’s volume. We have taken theopportunity to propose a unified basis for psychological science based upon an effort to combine experimental and differential approaches to the field. This article is an improved and expanded version of an earlier one along these lines (Posner & Rothbart 2004), and its developmental aspects are further expanded in a book (Posner & Rothbart 2007).

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Contents
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . HEBB’S NETWORK APPROACH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMAGING ATTENTION NETWORKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulating Attention Networks . . . INDIVIDUAL EFFICIENCY . . . . . . . NETWORK DEVELOPMENT . . . . Socialization and Culture . . . . . . . . . PATHOLOGY OF ATTENTION NETWORKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTEGRATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE . . Generality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 5 6 8 9 11 13 15 16 17 17

INTRODUCTION
Can psychology be a unified science, or must it remain fragmented and subject to transient research interests rather than cumulative development? Is psychology teachable or mustpsychology textbooks remain encyclopedias of often unrelated findings? In this article, we examine research on attention to suggest ways of looking at psychological questions and findings that might lead to hopeful answers to these questions. We offer a model based on Hebbian psychology that reaches out from biological roots to tackle questions of emotion and thought as well as behavior. We, with many of...
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