CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Wikipedia (excerpts)
Criminal justice is the system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, andsanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts.
OBJECTIVES OF CRIMINAL LAW (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criminal_law)Criminal law is distinctive for the uniquely serious potential consequences or sanctions for failure to abide by its rules
Five objectives are widely accepted for enforcement of the criminal law bypunishments: retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation and restitution. Jurisdictions differ on the value to be placed on each.
• Retribution - Criminals ought to suffer in some way.This is the most widely seen goal. Criminals have taken improper advantage, or inflicted unfair detriment, upon others and consequently, the criminal law will put criminals at some unpleasantdisadvantage to "balance the scales." People submit to the law to receive the right not to be murdered and if people contravene these laws, they surrender the rights granted to them by the law. Thus, one whomurders may be murdered himself. A related theory includes the idea of "righting the balance."
• Deterrence - Individual deterrence is aimed toward the specific offender. The aim is to impose asufficient penalty to discourage the offender from criminal behavior. General deterrence aims at society at large. By imposing a penalty on those who commit offenses, other individuals are discouraged fromcommitting those offenses.
• Incapacitation - Designed simply to keep criminals away from society so that the public is protected from their misconduct. This is often achieved through prisonsentences today. The death penalty or banishment have served the same purpose.
• Rehabilitation - Aims at transforming an offender into a valuable member of society. Its primary goal is to prevent...
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