Culture droot

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THE
 FREE
 MOVEMENT
 OF
  CULTURAL
 GOODS
 AND
  SERVICES:
 THE
 CONFLICT
  TRADE
 VS.
 CULTURE.
 

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Aurélie
 Rapenne
 
 
I6022643
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 


 

1
  INTRODUCTION
 
 
  “La
  culture…
  ce
  qui
  a
  fait
  de
  l’homme
  autre
  chose
  qu’un
  accident
  de
  l’univers”1.
  André
  Malraux,
  French
  writer
  was
  right
  to
  point
  out
  the
  specific
  nature
 of
 culture.
 Culture
 is
 what
 made
 us.
 Culture defines
 us.
 
 
 
  The
  term
  culture
  derives
  from
  the
  Latin
  cultura,
  meaning,
  “to
  cultivate”.
  According
 to
 the
 Oxford
 Dictionary,
 culture
 is
 “the
 arts
 and
 other
 manifestations
  of
  human
  intellectual
  achievement
  regarded
  collectively” 2
 and
  “the
 ideas,
  customs,
  and
  social
  behavior
  of
  a
  particular
  people
  or
  society”3.
  Therefore,
  culture
  can
  encompass
  two
  different
  meanings:
  cultural
  heritage
  and
  cultural
  diversity.
 There
 is
 no
 international
 definition
 of
 the
 culture.
 
 
  The
  conflict  between
  trade
  and
  culture
  has
  been
  existed
  for
  a
  long
  time.
  Nevertheless,
 trade
 and
 culture
 are
 not
 direct
 opponents.
 Indeed,
 culture
 needs
  trade
  to
  survive
  and
  to
  be
  known.
  To
  what
  extent?
  Trade
  reflects
  consumers’
  liberty
 and
  choice,
  and
  this
  can
  easily
  lead
  to
  a
  domination
  of
  one
  culture
  over
  the
 other.
 That
 is
 why
 there
 is
 a
 need
 for
 regulation.
 Culture
 is
 usually
 seen
 as
 the
  portrait
  representing
  a
  country.
  Due
  to
  its
  major
  role,
 public
  interventions
  and
  regulations
 are
 needed.
 Each
 States
 wants
 to
 protect
 its
 culture
 and
 it
 is
 such
 an
  important
  matter,
  that
  there
  is
  a
  fundamental
  need
  for
  national
  regulations
  to
  protect
  and
  promote
  culture.
  At
  the
  national  level,
  culture
  can
  be
  properly
  protected.
 
 
  Heated
  conflicts
  over
  trade
  and
  culture
  are
  reaching
  fever
  pitch
  in
  the
  globalization
  era.
  It
  is
  true
  that
  globalization
  permits
  diffusion
  of
  diversity,
  thanks
  to
  exchanges
  and
 communications’
  development.
  However,
  it
  also
  threatens
  diversity,
  when
  these
  developments
  lead
  to
  the
  benefit
  of
  one
  predominant
 culture:
 the
 risk
 of
 homogenization.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 Culture…
 
 made
 humans
 something
 else
 than
 a
 universe
 accident.
 André
 Malraux.
  2
 Oxford
 Dictionaries
 online. 3
 Idem
 


 


 

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